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Franco-German co-operation: productive tension. Several Europes but which ones? A proposal to rationalise European integration.
Britain in Europe: neither in nor out. Eurozone: light at the end of the tunnel? For a credible growth strategy for the eurozone: the obligation to produce results. EU Banking Union: Sound in theory, difficult in practice.
Towards a fiscal federation? European strategic interests: choice or necessity? Europe and Globalisation: the dangers and the assets. Why the transatlantic economy still matters. The strategic alliance between local communities and community movements will form the basis of territories and residence citizenship.
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Large regions will be the driving-force behind national and regional development. Such development will have considerable effect on nature and on the way in which urban policies are made. Alliances between working-class and middle-class sections of society, the basis of the model for the renewal of working-class districts, will be made easier; these alliances will be the alternatives with regard to the different oligarchies. The construction and development of the social link gives a privileged position to the construction of the public space, symbolic reference and social link of the cohesive metropolis.
Readjustment between North and South opens up a new phase of decolonization and new geopolitics. It might close the phase than ran from to and through management of the debt crisis take over the control of raw materials and military interventions. Between thirty and fifty developing countries, of which the three most dynamic are Brazil, India and China, can defend their points of view and their interests.
It is not a question of a multipolar world but of a new international, geopolitical system. The effects could be considerable, notably for the terms of international trade. This would go together with new urbanization and migration which are the new ways of populating the planet. This evolution carries two conditions.
The first is that developing countries be capable of changing their growth model favouring the domestic market and the consumption of the working-class and middle-class sections of society with regard to exports.
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This de-connection is possible. It offers new possibilities for urban policies. The second condition is that developing countries build alliances with countries in the South; it is in their own interest to do so. The first phase of decolonization failed mainly when the petroleum countries, after the clash of , had allowed rifts to form between countries of the South, thus enabling the G7, supported by the IMF and the World Bank, to impose structural adjustment.
The indispensable and necessary global regulation will require an overhaul of the system of international relations based on a radical reform of the United Nations and a progression of international law based on the implementation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, rejecting the subordination of individual and community rights to commercial and business law. This worldwide regulation could help make global citizenship a reality. It could have several important effects for urban policies: first of all, on the financing of urbanization, and urban amenities, considered as a Global Public Good which should be financed by international taxes; next, on the mastering of urbanization through linking the different levels; and the planning of conurbations from the global urban framework to global level and large regions; that of conurbations and national and regional development to national level and to the level of large regions; that of access to the region and to rights at local level.
None of these opportunities will happen on its own; they are all heavy with reprocessing and renewed oppression. By displaying the potential borne by the resistance movements and current practices, another world offers a way out of the current crisis in its various configurations. This would enable the struggle against a possible alliance between neoliberals and neo-Keynesians by increasing resistance and demands for social and ecological modernization. From until the latest reshuffle in September , all his defence ministers were from northern Katanga, as were the interior and justice ministers from to Katangans currently hold eight of 37 ministerial posts, including the strategic and lucrative infrastructure, mines and finance ministries.
Numbi, another Lubakat and the head of the Congolese police PNC from to , was forced into a background role in , following allegations that he was involved in the killing of respected human rights activist Floribert Chebeya. Previously in the military, he maintains strong links within the army and the Republican Guard GR , and a return to a more prominent role is possible. The reason for the suspension was to allow calm organisation of the investigation. Numbi appeared as a witness at the trial that was organised from June In his statement, he denied having met Chebeya the day of his disappearance.
Eight policemen were indicted and five convicted. Numbi was replaced as head of the police on 28 December Following suspension, he remained involved in military matters in the east and relations with Rwanda. He is reportedly linked to the Bakata Katanga armed group. According to multiple sources, Numbi also received several Katanga provincial authority contracts when Katumbi was governor.
His agency is deeply involved in repression of civil society groups, raising the possibility that Katangans in the national government will be increasingly involved in repressing political activity at home, further heightening resentments. Crisis Group email correspondence, Kinshasa-based diplomat, October Before becoming deputy governor, Tshibal was a leader of the Ruund Lualaba cultural association.
Though many Katangans hold senior public office, some of the elite are increasingly frustrated with Kabila, blaming him as well as former Governor Katumbi for lack of development in Lubakat-dominated Tanganyika and Haut-Lomami provinces formerly districts. In previous elections, Kabila obtained massive support from these areas and rewarded elites with key political and administration posts, including in the security services.https://ignamant.cl/wp-includes/55/2305-como-ubicar-por.php
However, he left out some prominent leaders, such as Jean-Claude Masangu who aspired to be prime minister. Kabila is reportedly aloof in dealing with Katangan elites, which is taken badly in his home province. In , Katanga accounted for 71 per cent of revenue generated by the extractive sector, which is responsible for 95 per cent of total exports and a very large portion of central government revenues. Copper alone is 30 per cent of export receipts. Copper production, , tons in , dropped precipitously in the mids but recovered in the mids.
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At these levels, known reserves would last twenty to 30 years. However, the drop in commodity prices has affected this spectacular growth.
Cobalt production is projected to fall by This seriously affects foreign currency reserves and is puting pressure on the Congolese Franc in a politically tense period. Reflecting the drop in revenue, Prime Minister Matata Ponyo announced on 16 May a 22 per cent budget cut for Crisis Group interview, Kinshasa-based diplomat, Kinshasa, March In , it was responsible for Global Witness and other sources allege such secretive deals have continued since , including with Chinese investors.
Proceeds allegedly function as a parallel source of central government funding, bypassing the scrutiny of parliament and the International Monetary Fund IMF. The government has denied allegations of underselling, insisting that it has published all relevant material, and vigorously defending the deals. Other parties implicated also fervently deny any wrongdoing. Another part of the deal is the development of a MW hydropower station in Busanga, north of Kolwezi.
Under the deal, investors are protected from falling copper values, and production is tax exempt. This production appears in the statistics but does not represent new revenue for the government. Crisis Group interviews, diplomats and analysts, Kinshasa and Lubumbashi, March There is no evidence that Sicomines itself was complicit in the misuse of funds that went to public authorities. Provinces currently have two sources of funding: provincial taxes and a 40 per cent share of national taxes raised in their territory, which the central government should return to them.
The latter should be the largest revenue source; however, the central government has only partially kept its obligation. Nationally, it returned only approximately 14 per cent to provinces in Accurate national and provincial tax revenue figures are difficult to obtain. However, with the deepening economic crisis, Kabila has few options, so uses state resources, largely generated in Katanga, to sustain central government patronage. Despite its riches, large infrastructural and developmental inequality persists in Katanga.
The poverty rate is above the national average. Crisis Group interviews, local politicians, humanitarians and diplomats, February-July According to the latter report p. Even in the mining belt, large investments and growth have not translated into significant formal employment.
La guerre d’Irak – Conçue en Israël ? | Arrêt sur Info
Most Katangan miners are artisanal, selling their production to trading posts comptoirs in Lubumbashi, Likasi and Kolwezi, mainly owned by Chinese businesses. Crisis Group interviews, local officials and civil society representatives, Lubumbashi, Kolwezi, May-June According to the Chamber of Mines, the drop in mineral production has already cost at least Crisis Group email correspondence, Lubumbashi-based civil society representative, Nairobi, October This can take on ethnic overtones.
The mining economy has for decades drawn in large numbers of migrant labourers, especially from Kasai province. Different communities, migrant and local, have fought for control of land, jobs and political office. Overall, Katanga owes its particular place in Congolese politics to two factors: the Katangan origin of the president and his predecessor and its economic weight.
Together these have created distinct political expectations. While many Katangan elites are happy to see one of their own in power in Kinshasa and would like it to stay that way , they are aggrieved at the perceived failure to return to the region a fair share of the wealth it generates.